Lab five – the osi model

a picture found online that outlines the
open systems interconnection model

the osi model or open systems interconnection model is used to outline the standards and functions of computer systems and how they communicate between themselves and other computer systems. the osi model developed in 1984 by the International standards originization was created for the purpose of helping manufactures communicate with to communicate with other manufacturers. the TCP/IP model is not as complex as OSI and was the model used prior to the existance of the OSI model, however the osi model is better for diagnosing problems within a system with its 7 layers.

Cmd: command prompt, cmd.exe, or simply cmd is a remenant of MS-DOS is windows command line interpreter used to execute commands. with command prompt users are able to use commands like “ping” followed by an internet protcol (IP) address and this will send a packet to the address and display the time it took to send the ping and come back. As well as the command “tracert” which shows several details about the packet and the path it takes to the destination specified.

Fun Fact: by pinging ping, it took me 415ms, to ping singapore which is over 9,000 miles away!

“IPConfig /all”: Ipconfig when entered into the command prompt will display all the addresses as well as other information pertaining to your system such as your personal IP address, your physical MAC address, and your subnet mask etc.

DNS: it is not completely necessary to have a complete IP address as the Domain Name System translates Domains like “” to their proper IP address ( for you! this comes in handy for multiple different reasons like being able to type in a Domain name such as “” and it be translated to and telling you that it takes approximately 33ms to transfer that packet when pinged.

Fun Fact: this websites IP address is and it took me 24ms to ping

ARP: Address Resolution Protocol its used when sending information between systems when a “source” system does not know the mac address of the “destination” system by way of an ARP request which asks systems on the network with the IP address of the “destination” system what their MAC address is. ARP is a protocol for mapping an IP address.

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